INTRAORAL CARCINOMAS IN MAIDUGURI, NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA
|Title of Paper||INTRAORAL CARCINOMAS IN MAIDUGURI, NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA|
|Authors||Otoh EC, Johnson NW, Olasoji HO, Danfillo IS, Adeleke OA|
|Year of Publication/Presentation||2005|
|Publication Details/Conference Venue||Oral Diseases 2005; 11(6): 379-385.|
|Research Area||Oral Cancers|
|Objective: To document the pattern of intra-oral carcinomas diagnosed in a referral hospital in North Eastern Nigeria.
Design & Setting: A 16-year retrospective study of intra-oral carcinomas diagnosed histologically at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH), Maiduguri between 1987 and 2002.
Materials & Methods: Information on socio-demographic characteristics of patients and details of cancer management were retrieved from the files and histopathology records of patients seen at the hospital.
Results: Forty-four (44) cases of intra-oral carcinomas were seen at the hospital, with no occurrence in children. Squamous cell carcinoma (63.6%) is the commonest in all sites and among females (M-F ratio=6:7) and in the 6th decade of life. It is commonest in the palate 19(43.2%) and commonly associated with the use of kola nuts and tobacco (40% each). It was reported mainly among farmers (57.1%), with 71.4% of the patients seen in the stage IV of the disease. Carcinomas, and specifically squamous cell carcinoma, were more commonly reported among the Kanuris, Fulanis and Kilbas. The mean interval between symptoms and presentation for the different carcinomas ranged between 9-25 months, with the least interval reported for mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
Conclusions: Intra-oral squamous cell carcinoma was commonest and commonly reported in the palate, in females, among farmers and in the 6th decade of life. Its occurrence in under-40 year olds is 5 to 10 times greater than reported for the USA and Europe and its associated with the use of kola nuts and tobacco. Most patients reported in stage IV of the disease. The use of biological markers would help in the early detection of intra-oral carcinomas and help improve the prognosis of the disease.